Acid Soil: Soil with pH level less than 7.0. A soil test from your local extension service will determine your soil’s pH level and recommend lime or sulfur amendments.
Aerate: Loosen compacted soil for friable penetration of water, air, and nutrients. Aeration is done either by punching holes into the soil (for sandy soils), removing plugs of soil (for clay soils), or by liquid products formulated to serve the same purpose.
Aerobic:The presence or occurrence of oxygen.
Allelopathy: The growth-inhibiting effect one plant has on a nearby plant usually due to a chemical discharge.
Alkaline Soil: Soil with pH level more than 7.0. A soil test from your local extension service will determine your soil’s pH level and recommend lime or sulfur amendments.
Amendments: Substances or formulations added to the soil to improve soil structure.
Anaerobic: The absence of oxygen.
Analysis: Determination of chemical components or soil structure.
Analysis Tag: Individual state standards for information and purity assurance of certified seeds.
Annual: A plant that completes its life cycle in a single year. There are cool season annuals and warm season annuals, both of which may be present in a given lawn.
Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua): An inexhaustible and invasive weed that seeds profusely. Three plant types are identified as annual bluegrass - the annual type, the perennial type, and the biennial type. All three types can exist in a lawn simultaneously, which makes Poa annua incredibly difficult to eradicate. Some researches breed varieties of Annual Bluegrass for cultivation.
Annual Ryegrass: Sometimes called Italian Ryegrass. An annual cool season type turfgrass characterized as having shiny blades with smooth edges. With excellent seedling vigor, Annual Ryegrass germinates and establishes very quickly but is a short-lived type of grass that thrives for only one season or only one year. It is not very heat or drought tolerant but is often used in Southern regions to overseed warm season grasses during their dormant season.
Availability: The idea that nutrients can be made available or unavailable to the plant roots depending on pH, chemistry, and soil biology.
Bahia Grass: One of several perennial warm season type turfgrasses characterized as having a coarse blade and vigorous growth habit. Bahiagrass requires frequent mowing during hot weather and is not suitable for soils with high pH. Bahiagrass is suitable for southern lawns and prominently grows in the Florida coastal regions.
Bed: An area designated and prepared to maintain plants.
Bentgrass: One of several perennial cool season type turfgrasses commonly known as the premier of cool season lawns. Bentgrass requires very high input, with frequent short mowings and frequent fertilizer applications. Bentgrass spreads by profuse creeping stolons and possesses rather vigorous, shallow roots. Bentgrass is grown in many areas of Northern US but is best suited throughout the New England States and the Pacific Northwest where climate conditions are ideal.
Bermuda Grass: One of several perennial warm season type turfgrasses characterized as low-growing, wiry and grows from both above-ground stolons and below-ground rhizomes. It is one of only two lawngrasses that possesses both of those horizontal growth characteristics, which makes Bermudagrass an extremely aggressive spreading grass. Bermudagrass is a major turf species in the Southern regions of the US.
Biennial: A plant with a two-year life cycle.
Blade: The leaf portion of the grass plant that is formed from the shoot.
Blend: Combination of two or more varieties/cultivars of the same species.
Breeder Seed: The pure variety of seed the breeder produces.
Broadcast: The relatively inconsistent distribution of seeds, pesticide, or fertilizer over a given area.
Broadleaf: A general term referring to non-grass plants growing in a lawn, which are often considered to be weeds. Examples include dandelion and white clover. Sometimes, weeds can be indicators of poor soil condition.
Bunch-type: A single grass plant that produces many tillers, and the tillers produce many leaves. Tall Fescue and Ryegrass are examples of two bunch-type species.
Carbohydrate: The foodstuffs a grass plant manufactures for itself during the process of photosynthesis, in which it uses the sun’s energy and moisture to produce and manage nutrients for growth and sustenance.
Carbohydrate Storage: Once a grass plant utilizes enough carbohydrates to sustain itself, any excess production of carbohydrates is transcolated into the storage organs of the plant. Those stored reserves are used during and after times of dormancy, such as winter and summer dormancy periods. Storage organs are the stems, roots, and rhizomes/stolons of the plant. Storage increases when growth has slowed. Storage decreases when growth is rapid.
Centipede Grass: One of several perennial warm season type turfgrasses characterized as a coarse-textured, slow-growing grass that spreads by stolons. The short, upright stems of the stolons resemble a centipede, and that is where the grass got its name. Centipede is sometimes called the lazy man’s grass because it requires very little input. It is particularly well adapted to the sandy, acid soils of the Southeastern US.
Certified Seed: Third generation of the pure seeds grown from foundation or registered seeds under supervision and strict standards to increase variety availability. Commonly available to the public. Certified seed is seed of a known variety produced under strict seed certification standards to maintain varietal purity. Seed lots must also meet specified standards for other crops, inert matter, weed seeds, and germination. Certified seed is also free of prohibited noxious weed seeds. All certified seed must pass field inspection, be conditioned by an approved seed conditioning plant, and then be sampled and pass laboratory testing before it can be sold as certified seed.
Chewings Fescue: A perennial cool season type turfgrass characterized as an aggressive bunch-type with fine texture. Chewings Fescue is one of the three in the Fine Fescue family of grasses, all of which are known for their superior shade tolerance. Chewings Fescue is best adapted to cooler areas in the northern United States and Canada, the coastal regions of the Northeast and Pacific Northwest, and elsewhere where summers are cool.
Climate Zones: A set of three zones that divide the United States into regions. The North is the Cool Climate Zone, the South is the Warm Climate Zone, and the middle of the country is the Transition Zone.
Chlorosis: A condition that causes deficiency of the chlorophyll pigment, which gives grass blades their green color. Chlorosis can be caused by any number of environmental or chemical factors.
Classifications: The many distinct types of Kentucky Bluegrass classified into 14 genetic families based on morphological characteristics.
Clippings: The shorn portions of grass blades as a result of mowing. Grass blades are high in water content and decompose readily and quickly. Therefore, clippings do not ordinarily contribute to thatch formation.
Compacted Soil: Hard, impenetrable soil usually due to neglect, excessive traffic, and/or improper cultivation.
Complete Fertilizer: A balanced fertilizer product containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements.
Compost: The resulting product of decomposed organic matter used for amending the soil.
Contact Herbicide: Affects only the portions of the plant in which it comes in contact.
Cool-season Turfgrass: Turfgrass species that favor cooler periods for their growing season. In the U.S., cool season grasses are grown in the Northern and transition zone areas of the country. For cultivated lawns, examples of cool season turfgrasses are Kentucky Bluegrass, Tall Fescue, Fine Fescue, and Ryegrass.
Core Aerate: The mechanical cultivation process of loosening compacted soil for friable penetration of water, air, and nutrients. Core aerating removes plugs from the soil and is performed on compacted clay soils.
Creeping Red Fescue: A perennial cool season type turfgrass characterized as having fine, narrow blades and spreads by rhizomes and tillers although it is relatively non-aggressive. Creeping Red Fescue is one of the three in the Fine Fescue family of grasses, all of which are known for their superior shade tolerance. Creeping Red Fescue is planted in northern and temperate climates, where low-input of mowing, fertilization, and irrigation is desired.
Crop: The new flush of wanted or unwanted plant growth i.e. grass, weeds, etc.
Crown: A small stem with the growing point located at the top.
Cultivar: A plant with desirable traits developed through artificial breeding.
Cultivate: To nurture and promote growth of grass plants.
Cultural Practices: The methods and techniques used to nurture and promote growth of grass plants. Examples are irrigating, fertilizing, mowing, etc.
Decompose: The process and rate at which living organisms decay.
Desiccation: Condition of drying out. Leads to dormancy in summer for some grasses. Desiccation can cause winter injury if grass is not adequately moistened before frost.
Dicot (short for Dicotyledonae): A term rarely used outside scientific circles referring to broadleaved plants. Plant having two cotyledons (first leaves that appear as the plant emerges from the seed).
Disease: A pathogen that infects plants, the effects of which result in abnormal growth, anomalous appearance, damage, or death to the grass plants.
Disease Pressure: Recurring weather patterns common to a given area that are normally conducive to lawn disease, such as humidity combined with high temperatures or low light intensity combined with high humidity. Prevalence or rate of occurrence of any disease in a given area that the grass growing in that area will be susceptible to or subjected to.
Dormancy: The survival mechanism of the grass plants in reaction to unfavorable environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures or drought.
Dormant Seeding: Planting grass seeds during conditions that do not favor germination or growth in anticipation of a prepared state when conditions are more favorable. Sometimes called winter seeding and often done during winter when temperatures do not promote germination, expecting the seeds will germinate and the grass will grow in spring.
Drop Spreader: A device that dispenses substances directly downward used to uniformly distribute seeds, pesticide, or fertilizer over a given area.
Drought: Extended period of time without moisture
Drought Stress: The damaging affect on grass plants when subjected to extended periods without moisture. When combined with extreme heat, the effect can be more damaging. Initial signs of drought and heat stress are discoloration, wilting, lack of resilience.
Drought Tolerance: The threshold of the grass plant's ability to withstand extended periods of dry conditions before permanent damage occurs.
Endophyte: nonpathogenic fungi used to inoculate some grass types for the purpose of preventing insect damage and improving growth vigor and appearance. The fungus, a living organism, lives within the grass plants and are translocated to generations through the seeds. Ryegrass and Tall Fescue are sometimes endophyte-enhanced.
Erosion: The event that moves the productive layer of soil to another location. Wind or water can cause erosion in the absence of grass or other plant life that otherwise serve to bind the soil and prevent erosion. Excessive tilling can be another cause.
Evaporation: Vaporization and loss of moisture from the surfaces soil and leaves.
Evapotranspiration: Sum of all the moisture lost through evaporation (surface water vaporization and removal into the atmosphere) and transpiration (plant water vaporization and removal into the atmosphere).
Extension Service: Community service programs sponsored through each state’s agricultural university to serve the community at large. For turfgrass purposes, extension services have soil testing laboratories and pathology labs to diagnose diseases, and plant identification. Their websites offer publications on turf selection, maintenance, cultural practices, disease control, weed control, etc. County extension offices are available for live help and direct contact.
Fertilizer: Organic or synthetic supplement applied to the lawn for nutritional purposes. Fertilizer are sold in liquid, granular, or pelletized forms.
Fertilizer Burn: The effect upon plant roots by some fertilizers that gives the top growth a burned appearance. Can happen when too much fertilizer is applied. Can kill the grass.
Fine Fescue: A species of three different perennial cool season type turfgrasses, all of which are known for their superior shade tolerance. They are ordinarily blended together but mix well with other grass types. Chewings Fescue, Creeping Red Fescue, and Hard Fescue comprise the Fine Fescue family of lawngrasses.
Foundation Seed: The second generation of pure seeds grown from breeder seeds under supervision and strict standards to increase variety availability.
Four Classes of Seeds: Breeder, Foundation, Registered, Certified. The process of expanding availability of pure seeds for retail sales.
Friable: Good soil rich in organic matter that readily allows water, air, and fertilizer to penetrate.
Fungicide: A pesticide formulated to control, suppress, or eradicate fungal disease.
Genetic Color: The inherent color of the variety/cultivar.
Germinate: The developmental stage from seed to sprout, the point at which plant parts initially break the seed surface.
Grading: The process of contouring a landscape to control the direction of water flow.
Groundcovers: Low-growing plants used for ornamental purposes and sometimes planted as substitute for grass.
Growing Conditions:Taking into consideration all the physical surroundings that constitutes the environment that the grass plants will be subjected to. Examples are atmospheric conditions and weather patterns, soil structure, amount of shade, availability of water, hours of sunlight, etc. Particularly useful information when selecting grass type - species or varieties.
Growing Season: The time of year grass actively grows and propagates and is indicative of the best time for planting and fertilizing.
Hard Fescue: A perennial cool season type turfgrass characterized as being very hardy and is drought and salt tolerant. Hard Fescue is not demanding, requires little maintenance and adapts well to adverse conditions and heavy shade. Hard Fescue is one of the three in the Fine Fescue family of grasses. It grows best in the northern regions and the higher elevations.
Hardpan: Dry, hard soil unable to absorb air, water, and nutrients and therefore unable to support plant life or other living organisms.
Hellstrip: Lawn area between the sidewalk and road or street.
Herbicide: A dry or liquid pesticide substance formulated to kill or control weeds and/or grass.
High Maintenance: turfgrass species or cultural regimen that require high levels of input from the turf manager.
Humus: The result of fully decomposed organic matter that constitutes the organic portion of the soil.
Hybrid: The product of two different species through artificial breeding for desirable traits.
Insecticide: A dry or liquid pesticide substance formulated to kill insects.
Kentucky Bluegrass (KBG): A perennial, cool-season type grass species that forms a dense sod and spreads by rhizomes and tillers. The scientific name Poa pratensis is one of over 200 genus of the Poaceae family. Kentucky Bluegrass grows best in full sun but through breeding, there are cultivars that tolerate moderate shade. Kentucky Bluegrass is the predominant turfgrass throughout the Northern regions of the US and the transition zone.
Leaching: Loss of available nutrients occurs when water flushes them through the soil past the root zone.
Life Cycle: The expected span of plant life to termination.
Lime: An amendment used to increase alkalinity. When soil test reveals high acidity, lime is recommended to raise the soil pH level and bring it into balance.
Loam: Soil composition that is a balanced mixture of sand, silt and clay, which is ideal for grass plants.
Macronutrients: The primary nutrients grass plants need – nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
Mechanical Cultivation: Any cultural practice that utilizes small or large tools or equipment. Raking, power raking, core aerating, mowing, and tilling are examples of mechanical cultivation.
Micronutrients: Nutrients the grass plants need in small amounts - chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum.
Mix: combination of two or more species of turfgrass
Microbes: See Microorganisms
Microbial: Effectual result of the action or influence of microorganisms.
Microorganisms: Living plants or animals (such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoa) that are so small they can be seen only with the aid of a microscope.
Monocot (short for Monocotyledonae): A term rarely used outside scientific circles referring to grassy plants. A class of seed plants distinguished by such features as narrow, parallel-veined leaves, fibrous root systems, seeds containing only one cotyledon (first leaf that appears as the plant emerges from the seed). Grass plants are common examples.
Monoculture: A grass stand of more than one variety of a single species.
Monostand: A grass stand of a single variety/cultivar.
Mulch: Bulked organic material spread on top of soil to reduce water loss or prevent the growth of weeds.
Mulching Mower: A mower specifically designed to finely cut grass clippings and dispense them back into the lawn.
NTEP (National Turfgrass Evaluation Program): Distribution of information on the testing and adaptation of the major turfgrass species.
Nitrogen: One of the 17 elements necessary for plant growth and production. Among the 17, nitrogen is one of the three macronutrients supplied in balanced fertilization. Of the three macronutrients, nitrogen is the first major element. Nitrogen is essential for overall plant health and is specifically responsible for rich green color and strong root system. Nitrogen is represented on fertilizer packages as the “N” ratio value.
Native Grasses: Naturally-growing grasses that are most adapted to a region.
Non-Selective: Herbicide that affects all plant life without respect for species or desirable types.
Noxious Weed: Any plant declared by a state authority to be so objectionable that efforts should be directed at its eradication.
NPK: (N) Nitrogen, (P) Phosphorus, (K) Potassium. The major nutrients in fertilizer known as macronutrients.
Nutrients: The 17 known mineral elements that are essential to plant growth and development.
Organic: Plant and animal materials void of chemicals or synthetic (man-made) products.
Organic Gardening: Method of gardening using plant and animal materials to control plant growth and pests without using chemicals or synthetic (man-made) products.
Overseed: To seed into an existing lawn.
Pesticide: A substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, controlling, or destroying a pest. Weeds, insects, rodents, and diseases are all considered pests even though their individual remedies have references of their own, such as herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide.
Perennial: Plants that live more than one year.
pH: Measurement of soil’s acidity and alkalinity. Balance directly affects soil’s capacity for nutrient intake.
Phosphorus: One of the 17 elements necessary for plant growth and production. Among the 17, phosphorus is one of the three macronutrients supplied in balanced fertilization. Of the three macronutrients, phosphorus is the second major element. Phosphorus is essential for overall plant health and is specifically responsible for strong roots, flower yields, and aids in disease resistance. Phosphorus is represented on fertilizer packages as the “P” ratio value.
Photosynthesis: The process of using the sun’s energy and moisture to convert carbon to carbohydrates for growth and sustenance.
Post-emergent Herbicide: Herbicide formulated to be applied after weeds appear in the lawn in order to control or eradicate them.
Potassium (Potash):One of the 17 elements necessary for plant growth and production. Among the 17, potassium is one of the three macronutrients supplied in balanced fertilization. Of the three macronutrients, potassium is the third major element. Potassium is overall essential for strong plant health and is specifically responsible for disease resistance, strengthening plant walls, preventing water loss, improving drought resistance, and protecting against cold weather. Potassium is represented on fertilizer packages as the “K” ratio value.
Pre-emergent Herbicide: Herbicide formulated to be applied before weeds appear to prevent growth and development of weeds.
Pre-germinate: To sprout seeds before planting by soaking in water, soaking in moist towels, or by mixing with a moist growing medium such as top soil, compost, or peat and allowed to let stand until sprouting occurs.
PVP (Plant Variety Protection): Provides patent-like rights to developers of new varieties to protect against illegal reproduction and distribution. Varieties protected under the Plant variety Protection Act can only be produced and sold with permission.
Quick-release nitrogen: Readily available and immediately absorbed by the grass plants. May burn and/or leach.
Regime: The organized, scheduled, and executed routine or system of cultural practices.
Renovate: Any level of necessary restoration from repairing problem areas to overseeding to completely killing off existing grass to start over from scratch.
Rhizome: A horizontal stem or runner that forms new plants. Normally, rhizomes are formed just below the soil surface. Some examples of grass types that have rhizomes are Kentucky Bluegrass, Creeping Red Fescue, Bermuda, Bentgrass.
Roller: A round tank or barrel attached to a handle used to grade the soil surface or to compress seeds for better soil contact. Weight is controlled by adding water.
Root Zone: Depth of grass plant roots within the soil.
Rough Bluegrass (Poa Trivialis): A fine-textured, shade-tolerant grass that is considered an unsightly weed when it invades cultivated lawns.
Rotary Tiller: Also known as rototiller, a machine powered by gas or electric used to cultivate the soil with rotating tines or blades.
Runoff: Water flowing over the soil that the soil was unable to absorb.
Ryegrass: A perennial cool season type turfgrass characterized as a robust, leafy, bunch-type grass. Ryegrass germinates and establishes rapidly and is very competitive. Ryegrass thrives in heavy and waterlogged soils and is best adapted to valley and coastal areas with long seasons of cool, moist weather.
Scalping:Mowing practice that removes too much of the leaves at once. It can cause extreme stress and weaken or kill the grass.
Scarify: To prepare a seed for planting by cutting or nicking the outer layer.
Secondary Nutrients: Essential plant nutrients that follow the macronutrients in order of importance and plant requirements – sulfur, magnesium, and calcium
Seedling Vigor: Measurement of percent ground cover, plant height, etc. that reflects the relative speed and entry development into a mature sod. (NTEP)
Selective:Herbicide that targets specific species of plant life, usually weeds according to label indications.
Shoot: The factory of growing parts because it produces both leaves and rhizomes.
Slitseed: The method of using a verticutter (or vertical mower) with an attached hopper for seeding the lawn. The verticutter cuts slits in the soil as the hopper deposits seeds into the slits. Preferable for optimum seed to soil contact.
Slow Release: Water insoluble organic source or chemically altered to release nutrients at a slower rate. Will not burn or leach.
Sod: Squares or strips of turfgrass and soil cut from a production field that is used for instant lawn.
Sod-forming: Ability to form rhizomes and/or stolons that spread horizontally and knit a firm turf of grass. This type of grass is distinguished from bunch grass.
Sod Quality: Refers to seeds that are most closely inspected after harvesting for the presence of weed seeds.
Soil Food Web: A term given to the incredibly complex food chain occurring in the soil.
Soil Test: Measurement of the major nutrients, organic content, and pH levels in the soil. The most reliable soil tests are conducted by your state university extension service.
Species: Distinguishing identification of grass plants belonging to a genus that share characteristics, which are different from and unrelated to any other.
Spike Aerate:The mechanical cultivation process of loosening compacted soil for friable penetration of water, air, and nutrients. Spike aerating punches holes in the soil and is performed on compacted sandy soils.
Spot treatment: Herbicidal treatment applied to a single plant or specified small area.
Spring Greenup: The measure of the rate of transition from winter dormancy to active spring growth. It is based on plot color not genetic color. (NTEP)
St. Augustine Grass: A perennial warm season type turfgrass characterized as having flat stems and broad, coarse leaves. St. Augustinegrass spreads by stolons and forms a fairly dense turf in full sun. Most varieties exhibit good shade tolerance and are highly salt tolerant. St. Augustinegrass is best suited to humid regions of the Southern US.
Stolon: A horizontal stem or runner that forms new plants. Normally, stolons are formed at the soil surface. Some examples of grass species that grow and spread from stolons are Bermuda, Zoysia.
Stratify Seeds: To prepare a seed for planting by soaking in water or by freezing.
Stratify Soil: To layer with sand and clay.
Sulfur: An amendment used to increase acidity. When soil test reveals high alkalinity, sulfur is recommended to acidify the soil, lowering the pH level and bringing it into balance. Sulfur can also be used as a fungicide.
Synthetic: Inorganic, chemical, or man made amendments.
Systemic Herbicide: Kills vegetation after being absorbed by the plant upon contact and transcolated throughout the various portions of the plant.
Thatch: A layer of plant debris composed of living and dead parts that accumulates between the soil and the grass blades and prevents penetration of moisture, air and nutrients to the grass roots.
Tiller (noun): The growing point at which new leaves are formed from the shoot.
Tiller (verb): The process of new leaves being formed from the shoot.
Timed Release: Normally coated and water soluble. Formulated to release nutrients into the soil over a specified period of time. Prevents burning and leaching.
Top Dressing: Feeding plants by sprinkling fertilizer or compost on top of them.
Trace Elements: The essential nutrients in addition to the macronutrients (NPK) that plants require for healthy growth. The trace elements include: the secondary plant nutrients - calcium, magnesium, sulfur; the micronutrients - iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, chlorine, nickel; the essential non-mineral nutrients provided by nature and irrigation - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
Transcolate: To pass through or be carried through the grass plants’ system of vital parts.
Transpiration: Vaporization and loss of moisture from within the grass plants.
Turfgrass: A general term that refers to the cultivated lawns of homes, sports fields, parks, golf courses, etc.
Turf Manager: The person responsible for the care and maintenance of a lawn.
Turf Quality: The aesthetic and functional aspects of the lawn based on a combination of color, density, uniformity, texture, and disease or environmental stress. (NTEP)
Turf-Type Tall Fescue: A perennial cool season type turfgrass characterized as a vigorous, deep-rooted, bunch type. Tall Fescue has an extensive root system, which helps it withstand heat and drought conditions well. Tall Fescue produces short rhizomes, but they are basically ineffective. With the exception of a very few varieties, Tall Fescue grows primarily by tillering. Tall Fescue is well adapted in most northern areas and to the Transition Zone of the US, where summers are too hot and humid for most other cool season grasses and winters are too cold for warm season grasses.
Urea: A water-soluble, quick-release nitrogen fertilizer source.
Variety: Naturally occurring plant that possesses desirable traits.
Warm Season Turfgrass:Turfgrass species that favor warm periods for their growing season. In the U.S., warm season grasses are grown in the southern regions and the transition zone areas of the country. For cultivated lawns, some examples of warm season turfgrasses are Bermuda, Zoysia, St. Augustine, Centipede.
Water-Soluble: Fertilizers made of components easily dissolved in water and are immediately available to the grass plants.
Wear Tolerance:The threshold of the grass plant's ability to withstand extreme and extended periods of high traffic conditions before permanent damage occurs.
Weeds: Unwanted plants growing in the lawn that diminish turf quality and compete for nutrients, moisture, and light. Often times, weeds are indicators of poor soil condition. Sometimes, weeds grow indiscriminately.
Winter-hardy: Grass species or varieties that best tolerate extreme cold temperatures.
Zoysia Grass: A perennial warm season type turfgrass characterized as having stiff, fine-textured leaf blades. Zoysiagrass is a sod-forming species that grows from both stolons and rhizomes. Zoysia will adapt to all kinds of soils. Some varieties of Zoysia grass are more cold hardy than others, but Zoysia is best adapted along the Atlantic coast and along the Gulf Coast to Texas. It is also adapted in California and throughout the transition zone of the US.
If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to post them on the forum.